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Physical and Piezoelectric Properties of APC Materials

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APC Material: 840 841 850 855 880
Navy Type Equivalent Navy I -- Navy II Navy VI Navy III
Relative Dielectric Constant
KT 1275 1375 1900 3300 1050
Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Dielectric Loss(%)*
tan δ 0.60 0.40 ≤ 2.00 ≤ 2.50 0.40
Curie Point (°C)**
Tc 325 320 360 200 310
Electromechanical Coupling Factor
kp 0.59 0.60 0.63 0.68 0.50
k33 0.72 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.62
k31 0.35 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.30
k15 0.70 0.67 0.68 0.66 0.55
Piezoelectric Charge Constant (10-12 C/N or 10-12 m/V)
d33 290 300 400 630 215
-d31 125 109 175 276 95
d15 480 450 590 720 330
Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (10-3 Vm/N or 10-3 m2/C)
g33 26.5 25.5 24.8 21.0 25.0
-g31 11.0 10.5 12.4 9.0 10.0
g15 38.0 35.0 36.0 27.0 28.0
Young's Modulus (1010 N/m2)
YE11 8.0 7.6 6.3 5.9 9.0
YE33 6.8 6.3 5.4 5.1 7.2
Frequency Constants (Hz*m or m/s)
NL (longitudinal) 1524 1700 1500 1390 1725
NT (thickness) 2005 2005 2040 2079 2110
NP (planar) 2130 2055 1980 1920 2120
Density (g/cm3)
ρ 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6
Mechanical Quality Factor
Qm 500 1400 80 65 1000

 

APC Material: 842 844

851

881
Relative Dielectric Constant
KT 1375 1500

1950

1030
Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Dielectric Loss(%)
tan δ 0.45 0.40

1.50

0.40
Curie Point (°C)
Tc 325 320

360

310
Electromechanical Coupling Factor
kp 0.65 0.68

0.71

0.58

kt

0.48

0.48

0.51

0.46

Piezoelectric Charge Constant (10-12 C/N or 10-12 m/V)
d33 300 300

400

220
Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (10-3 Vm/N or 10-3 m2/C)
g33 26.3 24.5

24.8

26.7
Young's Modulus (1010 N/m2)
YE11 8.0 7.6

6.3

9.0
YE33 6.8 6.3

5.4

7.2
Frequency Constants (Hz*m or m/s)
NT (thickness) 2050 2050

2040

2050
NP (planar) 2230 2250

2080

2300
Density (g/cm3)
ρ 7.6 7.7

7.6

7.6
Mechanical Quality Factor
Qm 600 1500

80

1000

The values listed above pertain to test specimens. They are for reference purposes only and cannot be applied unconditionally to other shapes and dimensions. In practice, piezoelectric materials show varying values depending on their thickness, actual shape, surface finish, shaping process and post-processing.

Note: measurements made 24 hours after polarization.
Maximum voltage:5-7 VAC /mil for 850, 851, 855, Type VI VDC ~2X.
9-11 VAC /mil for 840, 841, 842, 844, 880, 881 VDC ~2X.
*At 1 kHz, low field.
**Maximum operating temperature = Curie point/2.

Standard Electrical Tolerances (Tighter tolerances avaliable on request)

- Capacitance: ±20%
- d33 Value: ±20%
- Frequency: ±5% (to ±0.5% on request)

Background on APC's Piezo Materials

Having a consistent piezoelectric material is important to the development and production of piezo devices. APC’s piezoelectric materials are known in the industry for their purity and low variability in mechanical and electrical properties.

APC’s piezo materials fall into two broad categories: hard piezo material and soft piezo material.

A soft piezo material exhibits: larger piezoelectric constants, higher permittivity, larger dielectric constants, higher dielectric losses, larger electromechanical coupling factors, low mechanical quality factors, a lower coercive field, poor linearity, and is easier to depolarize. This combination of properties makes soft piezo materials ideal for many sensing applications. APC’s primary soft pizeo materials are APC 850 and APC 855.

A hard piezo material exhibits: smaller piezoelectric constants, lower permittivity, smaller dielectric constants, lower dielectric losses, smaller electromechanical coupling factors, high mechanical quality factors, a higher coercive field, better linearity, and is harder to depolarize. This combination of properties makes hard piezo materials ideal for many high power applications. APC’s primary hard pizeo materials are APC 840, 841, and APC 880.

APC’s 840, 841, 850, 855, and 880 piezo materials are all proudly manufactured in the United States of America.

APC's piezoelectric ceramics are generally manufactured from PZT (Pb - lead, Zr - zirconium, Ti - titanium). This compound class shows much better piezo-electrical and piezo-mechanical efficiency than naturally occurring piezoelectric materials such as quartz.

The PZT- formulation can be varied with a variety of dopants allowing for a broad spectrum of material properties optimized for different application profiles.

Unfortunately, not all desirable properties can be put into a distinct piezo compound. Piezo-mechanics is to some extent is an "art of compromise", when selecting a suitable material for a distinct application.

Developing new piezo-materials is a steadily ongoing process in the ceramic industry. PZT is the most widely used smart material for solid-state actuation. Alternative materials with enhanced strain capability are under study, but all these "innovative" materials have drawbacks regarding common driving conditions.

PZT ceramics' material data are usually defined at low field excitation where nonlinearities are not dominant. In practice, high electrical fields are applied often applied resulting in a nonlinear enhanced response ("ferro-effects") and altered parameters. Nevertheless, for reasons of comparison with materials from different suppliers, the classical characterizations are used for describing piezoelectric ceramics. The data shown in the tables are valid for room temperature operation.

Piezoelectric ceramics are a ferroelectric compound. This means, that the electro-mechanical conversion process for producing a motion is related a kind of self-enhancement process based on an internal reorganization of the material's structure. This self-enhancement process results in the higher piezo-electrical efficiency of PZT when compared to natural materials like quartz.


For more information about APC International’s piezoelectric materials please consult the following:

Materials Overview
Choosing An APC Material
APC Materials for Sensing Applications
APC Materials for High Power Applications